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Training and
Literature

FSM therapist training with Carolyn McMakin || 2020

Treatment with Frequency Specific Microcurrent is not particularly complex if the therapist has a good general understanding of physiology and, ideally, knowledge of hidden connections in the development of diseases, especially toxins, nutrition and general medication.
Therapists who want to become FSM users will be trained by Carolyn McMakin and our team at the TimeWaver Academy. Knowing contraindications and risks is also important when working with FSM.

The situation regarding clinical trials is surprisingly good for a lesser known technique like FSM. Here are a few abstracts of some publications.

Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies (2005) 9, 169–176

Cytokine changes with microcurrent treatment of fibromyalgia associated with cervical spine trauma

McMakin C, Gregory W, Phillips T

“Patients who have Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) associated with cervical spine trauma have distinct pain descriptors and physical examination findings. Currently, there is no effective treatment for fibromyalgia. […] The findings associated with this treatment in an otherwise challenging group of patients suggests that this treatment modality warrants further characterization in studies that include sham treatments, matched controls and expanded monitoring for cytokines and neuropeptides.”

Current Review of Pain 1999, 3:440-446, Current Science Inc. ISSN 1069–5850

A Role for Inflammation in Chronic Pain

Tal M

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Dentistry and Medicine, The Hebrew University Hadassah, P.O. Box 12272, Jerusalem 91120, Israel.
“This review has discussed only a fraction of the available data on the interaction between inflammatory products and chronic pain behavior. Our understanding of the mechanisms of action in which products, especially cytokines, participate and induce abnormal pain behavior, is only in an early stage. However, even at this stage, there is an exclusive potential role for inflammation in chronic pain syndromes, especially where we do not recognize frank nerve injury, as in back pain. It is conceivable that biochemical and physiologic changes (inflammatory mediators) that occur along the pain pathway (nociceptors, peripheral nerve, DRG, dorsal root, central neurons in spinal cord) may sensitize one or all these sites along the pain pathway and hence lead to painful conditions.”

Pain Med. 2007 May-Jun;8(4):295-300.

Effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current in primary dysmenorrhea.

Tugay N, Akbayrak T, Demirtürk F, Karakaya IC, Kocaacar O, Tugay U, Karakaya MG, Demirtürk F.

“Both transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current appear to be effective in primary dysmenorrhea. As they are free from the potentially adverse effects of analgesics, and no adverse effects are reported in the literature nor observed in this study, a clinical trial of their effectiveness in comparison with untreated and placebo-treated control groups is warranted.”

J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2010 Jul;14(3):272-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2010.01.009. Epub 2010 Feb 19.

The efficacy of frequency specific microcurrent therapy on delayed onset muscle soreness.

Curtis D, Fallows S, Morris M, McMakin C.

“This study compared the effects of Frequency Specific Microcurrent (FSM) therapy versus sham therapy in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in order to determine whether specific frequencies on two channels would produce better results than single channel single frequency microcurrent therapy which has been shown to be ineffective as compared to sham treatment in DOMS. 18 male and 17 female healthy participants (mean age 32+/-4.2 years) were recruited. Following a 15-min treadmill warm-up and 5 sub-maximal eccentric muscle contractions, participants performed 5 sets of 15 maximal voluntary eccentric muscle contractions, with a 1-min rest between sets, on a seated leg curl machine. Post-exercise, participants had one of their legs assigned to a treatment (T) regime (20 min of Frequency Specific Microcurrent stimulation), while the participant’s other leg acted as control (NT). Soreness was rated for each leg at baseline and at 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise on a visual analogue scale (VAS), which ranged from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain ever). No significant difference was noted at baseline p=1.00. Post-exercise there was a significant difference at 24h (T=1.3+/-1.0, NT=5.2+/-1.3, p=0.0005), at 48 h (T=1.2+/-1.1, NT=7.0+/-1.1, p=0.0005) and at 72 h (T=0.7+/-0.6, NT=4.0+/-1.6, p=0.0005). FSM therapy provided significant protection from DOMS at all time points tested.”

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2011 Feb;12(2):104-17. doi: 10.1038/nrm3048.

Feedback regulation of EGFR signalling: decision making by early and delayed loops.

Avraham R, Yarden Y.

“Human-made information relay systems invariably incorporate central regulatory components, which are mirrored in biological systems by dense feedback and feedforward loops. This type of system control is exemplified by positive and negative feedback loops (for example, receptor endocytosis and dephosphorylation) that enable growth factors and receptor Tyr kinases of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ERBB family to regulate cellular function. Recent studies show that the collection of feedback regulatory loops can perform computational tasks – such as decoding ligand specificity, transforming graded input signals into a digital output and regulating response kinetics. Aberrant signal processing and feedback regulation can lead to defects associated with pathologies such as cancer.”

Clin Ophthalmol. 2015 Dec 17;9:2345-53. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S92296.

Microcurrent stimulation in the treatment of dry and wet macular degeneration.

Chaikin L, Kashiwa K, Bennet M, Papastergiou G, Gregory W.

“The substantial changes observed over this period, combined with continued improvement for patients who continued treatment once a month, are encouraging for future studies. The changes observed indicate the potential efficacy of microcurrent to delay degeneration and possibly improve age-related macular degeneration, both wet and dry. However, this study has no control arm, so results should be treated with caution. Randomized double-blind controlled studies are needed to determine long-term effects.”

Nonpharmacologic treatment of neuropathic pain using Frequency Specific Microcurrent

McMakin C

“Dual channel, specific-frequency microamperage current produced dramatic improvements in a collected case report of patients with chronic neuropathic pain. Treatment is noninvasive, low risk, widely available, relatively inexpensive, and appears to have no significant side effects. A controlled trial should be performed to further evaluate its effectiveness in this otherwise difficult patient group.”

Disclaimer: The TimeWaver systems and their applications are not recognized by conventional medicine due to the lack of evidence in the sense of conventional medicine.

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